Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF), is a form of signalling used by phone systems to transmit the digits
0-9 and the
# characters. Typically a caller presses these buttons on their telephone keypad and the phone then generates a tone made up of two frequencies played simultaneously (hence Dual Tone).
DTMF is used both for dialing a destination on a landline telephone and also for signalling to the remote end once a call is answered. Typically this is used to implement an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system, or to enter information like a PIN number or conference call pin. The Nexmo Voice API supports both collecting information from callers using the
input action in an NCCO as well as sending DTMF tones within a call.
You can collect input from your caller by using the
input action within your NCCO. You can collect a specific number of digits, set a timeout value or wait until the user has pressed the
# key before continuing (see the input action). Once the action is complete, Nexmo will send a webhook to your
event_url containing the keys that were pressed. If you return a new NCCO in response to this event Nexmo will replace the existing NCCO, ignoring any actions defined after the
There are two ways to send DTMF tones to a call:
For an outbound call made either via create call endpoint, or via a
connectaction, you can set the
dtmfAnswerparameter within the phone endpoint. This means that when the call is answered, Nexmo will automatically send the defined string of tones.
You can also send DTMF digits to a call at any time by sending a PUT request to the REST API and specifying a string of
You can use digits
p indicates a pause of 500ms if you need to add a delay in sending the digits.
DTMF can be sent across digital phone networks in several ways, known as In-Band and Out-of-Band, with In-Band the tones are played in the audio channel of the call and will be heard by the parties on the call. With Out-of-Band signalling the tones are sent in a separate signalling channel and may not be heard by a caller listening on the other end. This means that if you are testing sending DTMF by calling your own phone, you may not hear the tones in your earpiece.
DTMF can also have specific local carrier problems. If you experience difficulties in using DTMF please contact firstname.lastname@example.org with details of your problem.